Understanding Cannabis Use In Slovenia


This analysis was conducted by Marihuana Marš, Študentska Organizacija Univerze v Ljubljani

1. Cannabis user demographics in Slovenia

As cannabis is illegal in most parts of the world it is impossible to gather exact numbers regarding its use. Most information is collected through surveys, based on a representative population. As there are vast differences between developed countries and the ones in development, the policy of the countries in regard to drugs and data collection on the use of drugs the information presented here is primarily of informative nature.

The information gathered by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crimes in the World Drug Report from 2015 shows that the annual prevalence of cannabis is in North America, Oceania, and Western Central Africa. There are a few countries in Europe that stand out in regard to the high consumption of marihuana (WHO, 2016, p. 9). Those are the Czech Republic, France, Italy, Spain, Netherlands, and Monaco (UN Drug use prevalence).

In conclusion, Slovenia is not among the highest per capita marihuana user countries in the world. Furthermore, Slovenia ranks below the EU average in terms of the lifetime prevalence of cannabis use among individuals aged 15-64 with 20,7%, while EU average stands at 27,2% (NIJZ, p. 29-30). This also stands for cannabis use in the past year among young adults aged 15-34, with Slovenia reporting a rate of 12,3%, while the EU average is 15% (NIJZ, p. 30).

Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug among the Slovenian population. Age has a negative relationship with marijuana consumption, men are more likely to consume marijuana, married people are less likely to consume marijuana, and the unemployed are more likely to consume marijuana.

Among residents aged 15-34, individuals with the highest level of education, those from upper-class backgrounds in terms of material wealth, those who are unemployed, and those without a partner are more likely to have tried cannabis at least once in their lives. Residents with lower socio-economic status, as well as those with multiple indicators of low socio-economic position, are more likely to continue using cannabis. These socio-economic inequalities are particularly pronounced when it comes to education, and they are more noticeable among women aged 15-34 compared to men. The percentage of men with the highest level of education who have tried cannabis at least once in their lives is 1.5 times greater than that of men with the lowest level of education, while for women, this difference is 1.8 times. The percentage of individuals who continue to use cannabis among all those who have ever used it is 2.4 times higher among men with the lowest education compared to those with the highest education, and for women, this difference is 3.8 times. On the other hand, the percentage of individuals who have quit using cannabis among all those who have ever used it is 2.3 times higher in both men and women with the highest education compared to those with the lowest education.”

2. Cannabis use statistics in Slovenia

2.1. Introduction

Before we delve deeper into the statistics section, we first need to clarify the difference between the major compounds of cannabis called cannabinoids. As far as we know cannabinoids are compounds that are distinct to the genus of plants called Cannabis. The main three naturally occurring cannabinoids are CBGA (cannabigerolic acid), Δ9-THCA (Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid), and CBDA (cannabidiolic acid). CBGA represents the mother molecule of all cannabinoids which is later transformed via enzymatic reactions to Δ9-THCA or CBDA as we can see in the picture below. Due to this sequence of reactions, CBGA is normally found in lower quantities because most of it gets transformed. When CBGA, Δ9-THCA, and CBDA are exposed to heat, they get transformed from their acidic forms into their so-called active forms: CBG (cannabigerol), Δ9-THC (Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol) and CBD (cannabidiol). At this point, it is important to know that different strains possess different genes that give rise to THC or CBD-dominant strains. Strains that contain less than 0,3% of THC are referred to as hemp, which is used in agriculture for fiber, seed, and CBD oil production. Meanwhile, THC-dominant strains are referred to as marihuana, which is illegal in most parts of the world and is predominantly used for illicit drug production. (1)

Cannabinoids

We should also mention the different mechanisms of action these molecules have on the human body. If we start off with the most controversial molecule THC. THC is a partial agonist (partially activates) of the CB1 receptor, which is predominantly found in the brain. The partial activation of the CB1 receptor leads to euphoria, relaxation, and anti-nociception (reduces pain sensation). Due to the euphoric effect of THC, cannabis has been used as a recreational drug for centuries, which also led to its inevitable ban. On the other side, THC also shows great promise in the medical field as an analgesic (pain medication), antiemetic, and anticonvulsant. THC also acts as a partial agonist at the CB2 and other receptors, which could also explain some of its actions. CBD on the other hand exerts its action by being a partial agonist of CB2 receptors and by activating some other receptors. Some early clinical studies suggest that CBD could help with anxiety, cognitive and movement disorders, pain, and epileptic seizures. In contrast to THC, CBD either acts as a CB1 antagonist (block activation) or as a CB1 negative allosteric modulator, which means that CBD could potentially lower the toxic effects of THC and lead to a safer profile of action when the two compounds are used together. In between THC and CBD, we have CBG, which is a weak CB1 and CB2 partial agonist. CBG also acts as a strong agonist of ɑ-2 adrenoceptor, antagonist of the serotonin 5-HT1A receptor, and agonist at the PPARγ receptor. Due to CBG being a new interest of cannabinoid research, there are still not enough studies to conclude its efficacy but there are some promising results for the use of CBG in certain cancers as an add-on treatment, in metabolic syndrome (type two diabetes and hypertension) and as a neuroprotective agent. (1) (2)

2.2. How much cannabis is consumed annually in Slovenia in total and per capita?

Cannabis statistics for Slovenia are quite hard to come by especially when amounts consumed are in question. Most of the data focuses on THC-high cannabis, which is considered an illicit drug in Slovenia. On the other hand, very little is known about CBD, CBG, synthetic cannabinoids, and non-flower forms of cannabis. The scarcity of data is probably due to the illegal nature of cannabis and the relatively short period that CBD and associated products have been present on the market. In the sections below we will overview cannabis use for different groups of products.
2.3. How much traditional THC cannabis is consumed?

First, we need to address the most used and problematic type of cannabis which is THC-rich cannabis. In the survey conducted in 2012 (age group 15-64), there were 15.8% lifetime users, 4.4% last year users, and 2.3% last month users. If we compare data from 2012 to the data from the latest survey conducted in 2018, we can see a clear increase in cannabis users, to 20,7% lifetime users, 5.9% last year users, and 3% last month users. From these figures, we managed to estimate the total number of consumers with calculations from the demographic. All the estimates are available in the table below. (3) (4)

Slovenian Cannabis Usage By Demographic

Regarding quantities of cannabis use, we could find one study called an economic analysis of the illegal marijuana market in Slovenia, which estimated the total amount of cannabis consumption in Slovenia (5). From the online survey they carried out between January and April of 2015, they got 730 valid answers and assumed that this group represents the group of 61459 past year cannabis users (estimate from NIJZ survey in 2012). This group was later further classified into four groups: 1) infrequent users (29,471) (1-11x year), 2) regular users (20,626) (11-50 x year), 3) intensive users (6,637) (51-250 x year), and 4) problematic or heavy users (4725) (250 or more x year). Based on the online survey they also found out that group 1 uses 0,52 g, group 2 uses 0,39 g, group 3 uses 0,66 g and group 4 uses 1,1 gr per typical day use. With these numbers, the researchers estimated that around 3 tons of cannabis was used in Slovenia in 2015. They also stated that cannabis consumption was probably underreported in the survey thus leaving the 3 tons per year estimated to be a conservative estimate. Based on the above-mentioned study we calculate the total amount of cannabis consumed based on the more recent 2018 NIJZ survey. In this calculation, we used the same parameters from the study mentioned above. We used the total number of people from the latest survey of NIJZ from 2018 instead of 2012. We estimated that the tons consumed from 2012 to 2018 increased by 900kg. Just to put the number in perspective this would mean that 1,4 g and 1,8 g of cannabis was consumed on a yearly basis per capita for 2012 and 2018 respectively. It is also stated that Slovenia is a self-sufficient country in the supply of cannabis, which is grown in specially designed facilities. (3) (4) (5)

Slovenian Cannabis Frequency Of Use

2.4. How much of CBD, CBG, or natural low THC cannabis is consumed?

In comparison to THC, CBD has managed to spread to various new industries such as cosmetics, food and beverages, wellness, supplements, medicine, and flower (smoking) industries. CBD has the advantage of being non-intoxicating and showing a safe profile of use. After a problematic court case in 2017 in France, which later passed onto the European court, CBD lost the label of a narcotic. The court stated that CBD shouldn’t have been labeled a narcotic under the 1961 UN convention as it doesn’t possess any psychotropic effect and can be qualified as food if all other conditions of the EU Food Safety measures are met. (6) (7)

Currently, CBD has the status of a Novel Food because it wasn’t consumed to a larger degree by humans before 15.5.1997. Only seeds, seed oil, hemp seed flour, defatted hemp seed, and cold pressed flower CBD oil have a history of consumption in the EU before 1997 and therefore, are not considered novel foods and can therefore be marketed without approval in the EU. Other products for consumption as for example CO2 extracted CBD oil need to have an approved application from the European Commission, which is roughly costs around 300.000 in 400.000€. A lot of CBD oil sellers bypass this regulation by selling their oil as cosmetics because in 2021 CBD was included in the cosmetic ingredients database. A similar approach is used for flowers, which are clearly sold for smoking but are labeled as non-consumables, for example as incense, to avoid tobacco and nicotine-related regulations. (7)

In the next section, we will discuss the statistics of CBD use in Europe as we couldn’t find any concrete data in Slovenia. For the market analysis, we chose the report by Prohibition Partners who surveyed 5,234 people across various European countries. The survey concluded that roughly 11% of the people (n=5234) used CBD products in the past year while 4% reported using CBD products in their lifetime but not in the past year. What also seemed promising is that a little more than 50% of the survey respondents have heard of CBD before. If we look at the past year’s users (n=1056) more in-depth, we can see from the survey that 16,4% of the people use CBD products once a day or more, 12% twice or more a week, 12,4 % once a week, 14,4 % once every couple of weeks, 11,5% once a month and 33,2% less than once a month. This means that around 40,4% of the past year users use CBD products at least once a week, which is roughly 3,5% of the people surveyed. (7)

Currently, the most popular product is CBD oil either in consumable or cosmetic form, the second is CBD flower, the third are capsules or pills and the fourth are vapes. This will certainly change over the years as more companies develop new novel foods and drinks with approved applications from the European Commission making the marketing of the products possible. Altogether the young CBD industry seems to be growing at a healthy rate as the number of consumers grows on a yearly basis. The main problem in accordance with CBD products remains the laws and regulations of the EU as slowly evolving policies hinder business stability and growth. (7)The growth of the hemp EU market can be observed in the increase from 20,540 hectares cultivated in 2015 to 33,020 hectares cultivated in 2022 (60% increase) or 97,130 tons to 179,020 tons respectively (84,3% increase). Besides CBD production hemp is also used for fiber production, food and feed, construction, and paper production. For the ending point, we would also like to mention that hemp also provides numerous environmental benefits. For example, one hectare of hemp can remove 9-15 tons of CO2, comparable to a young forest (hemp takes only 5 months to grow!), helps prevent diseases when used in crop rotation, requires little to no pesticide use, and prevents soil erosion. (8)

2.5. How much CBG is consumed?

We will discuss the case of CBG separately since it belongs to a new branch of the cannabis industry. CBG fits into the category of minor cannabinoids, which is a large group of around 100 different cannabinoids (excluding THC and CBD). The leading compound from this group is CBG, which is already present in the European market. In 2022 the very first high CBG strain was registered in the EU plant variety database. Currently, these compounds remain mostly unregulated but before anything can be said about the minor cannabinoids, they must follow the steps of CBD being classified as a non-narcotic and gain approval from the European Commission. The industry also needs to do its part by not abusing psychoactive minor cannabinoids that are currently unregulated such as Δ8-THC. As of now these minor cannabinoids CBG (1425€/kg), CBN (3013 €/kg), and CBC (8550 €/kg) also have higher wholesale prices than CBD (443€/kg). These compounds also show promise as medicine as more and more research studies are done each year. (7)

2.6. How much is synthetic cannabinoid-infused cannabis? (CH4, THCp, etc)

Before we start this section, we need to briefly discuss the effects and different categories of synthetic cannabinoids. This group should be divided into semi-synthetic cannabinoids and fully synthetic cannabinoids. The most popular representative of the former is HHC, which is made from either THC or CBD via one chemical reaction. HHC is relatively new in the EU market since it was discovered for the first time by the Slovenian authorities in 2022. HHC seems to be safer than synthetic cannabinoids because it is more like THC since it works as a partial agonist on the CB1 and CB2 receptors and binds with a weaker affinity. In short, this means that HHC is weaker than THC and in the same way as THC it can’t activate the receptor to its full potential. In comparison to this description, synthetic cannabinoids are fully made in the laboratory with the intention of mimicking the effects of THC. Most of them have a higher affinity for CB1 and CB2 receptors, have a longer time of action, and work as full agonists, which means that they can reach a higher maximum effect of the CB1 receptor compared to THC and HHC. This important difference makes synthetic cannabinoids more dangerous potentially leading to serious side effects such as cardiotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and neurotoxicity or even death. (4) (9) (10)

Regarding the use of synthetic cannabinoids, we have very little data available. To our knowledge, there was only one survey done in Slovenia among students at Slovenian universities, with 319 correctly filled-out questionnaires. Around 7,9% of students have answered that they have taken synthetic cannabinoids and 28% (2,29% of all students) responded that they are still using them. On the other hand, 33,8% of students were strongly against synthetic cannabis use and 53,9% were not likely to take them. The group in the middle was represented by 11,6% of students who might take them while 0,7% stated that they are very likely to take them. Most of the responders acquired synthetic cannabinoids from their friends (64%), at parties (56%) and dealers (24%). What is also interesting is that some answered that they got these drugs from online shops (8%) and local specialized cannabis shops (12%). The problem with synthetic cannabinoids is that before regulators ban them, they remain legal and accessible in specialized shops. The same problem is currently with HHC products which can be freely sold in shops as they are still legal in the EU.(4) (9) (10)

Most synthetic or semi-synthetic cannabinoids are new compounds we don’t know a lot about. For this reason, most of these compounds pose greater health risks compared to traditional THC cannabis because we know so little about their short- and long-term negative effects. (4) (9) (10)

2.7. How much non-flower forms of cannabis are consumed? (Hash, oil, extracts, vapes, etc)

The data regarding types of cannabis products is also very sparse. According to EMCDDA insights on Cannabis production and markets in Europe 95-99% of Slovenians consume cannabis herb while only 1-5% of people consume resin or hash. The report also states that in 2009 most of the illicit cannabis was produced outside but increases were noticed in more technologically advanced indoor growing like hydroponics. (11)

The only study that made questionnaires on which forms of cannabis were consumed is a study made by the European school survey project on alcohol and drugs among 15–16 years old school children. The study found that 23,2% of all 15-16 year olds tried cannabis in their lifetime. Most of them used it in the form of cannabis flower (19%) or mixed with tobacco (17%), while 6,5% tried it in the form of cannabis oil and 3,3% tried resin or hash. (12)

The use of cannabis oil is also widely used for self-treating certain diseases, especially cancer patients. Most of these applications are not backed by science so people usually buy THC oil on the black market. According to a study from the USA 5% of cancer patients self-medicate with cannabis oil. Sadly a similar study hasn’t been conducted in Slovenia yet but from observations of multiple doctors they say the number is much higher than 5%.(13).

3. Economic impact in Slovenia

3.1. How much cannabis is produced in Slovenia?

We first need to divide the grey and illegal market. If we first look at the illegal market by analyzing the study, we mentioned above “an economic analysis of the illegal marijuana market in Slovenia”. During the study researchers surveyed 730 people who consumed cannabis and how much cannabis they consumed. They extrapolated this data to the survey of NIJZ on cannabis consumption in the Slovenian population. They concluded based on the 2012 NIJZ survey that there were around 2,91 tons of cannabis consumed in 2012. We used the same data from the study and applied it to the 2018 survey of NIJZ and concluded that the total amount of cannabis consumed in 2018 was around 3,80 tons.

While the gray market is harder to analyze since there are no national distinctions for cannabis that is used for the production of flowers, seeds, or fiber. The only data we could find was the report that stated that 500 hectares of cannabis farms in 2014-2015 and 150 hectares in 2022. They also stated that the reason for the drop in production is primarily due to uncertainties in cannabis regulation. From this, we can see that hemp production dropped in Slovenia, while on the other hand, we can see that the production saw an increase in Europe as we stated above. Based on the report of EU production in 2022 above (33,020 hectares 179,020 tons) we can calculate that one hectare gives around 5 tons of cannabis produce (whole plant product not just the flower!). The main problem with these numbers is that we don’t know how much of each part of the plant is produced, whether it is seed, fiber, or flower production. If we look at the EU CBD report, they mentioned the profitability of hemp production in the USA. We can see that one hectare of cannabis production for seeds can bring around 1000$ of revenue, for fiber 3000$, and for flowers 39000$.

3.2. What are the typical prices for cannabis in Slovenia?

The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, in a global study on retail and wholesale prices of cannabis, reported the following findings for Slovenia in 2010: The retail price of one gram of cannabis flower with a THC concentration ranging from 0.1% to 23.6% (average 7.4%) averaged 6.5 EUR (calculated as 8.6 USD multiplied by the 2010 average exchange rate of 0.7551 EUR/USD). The wholesale price of one kilogram of cannabis with a similar range of THC concentration was approximately 2250 EUR.

According to the research “An economic analysis of the illegal marijuana market in Slovenia,” the authors estimated that the retail price of high-quality illegal THC cannabis flower ranged between 6 and 8 EUR per gram.

Based on a market research study of the leading Slovenian providers of hemp-derived CBD products, we found that one gram of CBD hemp flower ranges between 6.5 and 10 EUR.

3.3. How much cannabis is imported into Slovenia?

The import of cannabis in Slovenia is difficult to define. Legal cannabis products span various sectors, including pharmaceuticals, food, industry, agriculture, and more. These products, due to their diversity, often share similarities with other products in the same industries, leading to a nomenclature that doesn’t clearly identify whether this range includes permitted cannabis products and their respective proportions.

There is no available data regarding the import of illegal cannabis. Only various studies exist on cases of seized cannabis. Changes in quantities over the years do not necessarily indicate an increase in cannabis imports to Slovenia, as it could have been destined for another country, or the government may have allocated more resources for punitive measures that year.

3.4. What is the value of the cannabis market in Slovenia? (black market and grey market)

By using the data from the NIJZ survey in 2018 and the study called “An economic analysis of the illegal marijuana market in Slovenia” we made an estimate that around 3,8 tons of cannabis was consumed in 2018. If we consider that a gram of cannabis costs around 6-8 € on the black market this would mean that the value of the cannabis market would range from 23 to 30 million EUR. The total market value could also be bigger since people could underreport their use and the retail price could be bigger than it is on the black market. If the estimate is that the excise duty plus tax would be around 80% of the retail price (% for a pack of cigarettes), the cannabis market could bring in around 18-24 million in taxes. This means that for each gram sold the seller would have a margin of 1.2 to 1.6€. The problem with the high tax rate is that small suppliers wouldn’t be profitable since small-scale businesses need 1.5-2 € for the production of one gram. This means that the retail price could be higher than 6-8 € and larger firms would probably take over the market due to lower production costs in mass production. It is important to note that the tax rate and excise duty could be different for cannabis than cigarettes for example. If the tax and excise duty were the same as for tobacco (22% tax, 35% excise duty + 40€ per kilogram) this would amount to 58% in taxes of the retail price of cannabis per kilogram. This means that the cannabis market could bring in around 13-17 million in taxes and the seller would have a selling margin of 2.5-3.3€. In this scenario, even small-scale business owners would be able to make a profit. Until we don’t know the tax rate and excise duty, we can’t say anything for certain, but in all probability, the total tax rate would be somewhere between 58% and 80%. In both cases, the tax revenue would be enough to cover drug-related expenditure which is estimated to be around 0,02-0,03% (12-18€ million) of Slovenia’s GDP (61,75€ billion).

Regarding the grey market, it’s hard to assume market value since we only have data on total hemp production, while we don’t have the data for hemp that is specifically grown for flowers with high CBD content. The main problem with current CBD flowers that are sold on the Slovenian market is the incorrect taxation since they are sold as incense but most of the consumers use the flowers for smoking.

4. Social impact in Slovenia

4.1. How many cannabis-related fines, arrests, and prison sentences are there each year?

In Slovenia, there are currently over 200,000 cannabis users, and each year, approximately 2,000 recorded criminal offenses involve cannabis, according to the Ministry for Internal Affairs (1993-2012). The annual reports from the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) reveal that Slovenia has one of the highest rates of cannabis seizures and recorded criminal offenses and misdemeanors among European countries. These elevated rates suggest an excessive focus on penalizing drug users rather than indicating the effectiveness of law enforcement or a high prevalence of crime (Nolimal/Kohek, p. 7-8).

Official police statistics show that over 50% of all criminal investigations pertain to drug-related cases, with cannabis being the most prominent (comprising at least 70%). In contrast to the EU, where criminal offenses make up roughly 18% of cases and misdemeanors constitute 82% in the realm of drug-related issues, in Slovenia, the average ratio stands at about 30% for criminal offenses and 70% for misdemeanors (Nolimal/Kohek, p. 8).

In the table below we can see the prevalence of illegal drugs in connection with offenses committed under Slovenian law for the year 2007 (Cahunek, p. 68).

prevalence of illegal drugs in connection with offenses committed under Slovenian law

Furthermore, the number of discovered specially adapted spaces for growing cannabis decreased in 2021, the police believe that the methods and equipment used are improving, resulting in a higher annual production. In 2021, the police uncovered 56 specially adapted spaces for hemp cultivation, which is 14 fewer than the previous year but seized almost half as many hemp plants compared to 2020 (NIJZ 2022, p. 23).

4.2. What % of cannabis citations are violent crimes?

There is no public data for violent crimes in accordance with cannabis use in Slovenia. According to a Canadian study (Godec, p. 28) alcohol is the most frequently abused substance involved in violent acts, accounting for at least 24% of cases. In comparison, cannabis is implicated in 3% to 6% of incidents, and cocaine in 8% to 11%. The authors of the study also found that between 17% and 24% of offenders committed crimes with the intention of obtaining funds for the purchase of specific drugs, most commonly cocaine. Among long-term cannabis users, fewer than 5% engaged in criminal activities (such as theft or robbery) to acquire it. The most common illegal activity related to the supply of cannabis was its sale.

Furthermore, the myth that the use of cannabis results in violence and deviant behavior was rejected already in the year of 1944 when the LaGuardia Committee published the first-ever in-depth study of the effects of smoking cannabis. The study demonstrated that the sole use of cannabis does not lead to violent crimes or serve as a gateway drug (NYAM).

4.3. How much money does Slovenia spend on cannabis enforcement?

Unfortunately, there is no precise number to the question of costs regarding only cannabis enforcement in Slovenia. However, the available data indicates that total drug-related expenditure represented 0.03 % of gross domestic product (GDP) in 2016 and that this proportion varied between 0.02 % and 0.03 % of GDP in the past decade (Drug report 2019, p. 3). Legalization of cannabis would substantially relieve the burden of the prosecution, judicial system, and the police in cannabis-related crime. Consequently, the above-mentioned state organs would be able to focus their time, energy, and resources on prosecuting more serious criminal activities. Finally, the effects would be substantial as for now more than 50 % of all criminal investigations are in the field of drugs of which mostly cannabis, at least 70 % (Nolimal/Kohek, p. 8).

***

Abbreviation of sources for cannabis user demographics in Slovenia:

NIJZ: Uporaba prepovedanih drog, konoplje v zdravstvene namene in zloraba zdravil na recept med prebivalci slovenije, Andreja Drev; Ada Hočevar Grom; Darja Lavtar; Maruša Rehberger; Aleš Korošec, Nacionalni inštitut za javno zdravje, 2021.

WHO, 2016: The health and social effects of nonmedical cannabis use, World Health Organization, 2016.

UN Drug use prevalence: dp-drug-use-prevalence | dataUNODC, last accessed 1.10. 2023

NIJZ: TOBACCO, ALCOHOL AND ILLICIT DRUG USE in Slovenian Population and Inequalities and Combinations of Use

Sources for cannabis usage statistics in Slovenia:

1. The Pharmacological Case for Cannabigerol | Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics [Internet]. [citirano 23. oktober 2023]. Dostopno na: https://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/376/2/204.long

2. Shahbazi F, Grandi V, Banerjee A, Trant JF. Cannabinoids and Cannabinoid Receptors: The Story so Far. iScience. 20. junij 2020;23(7):101301.

3. Drev A, Grom AH, Čolaković AB, Frič A. REPORT ON THE DRUG SITUATION 2018 OF THE REPUBLIC OF SLOVENIA.

4. Jandl M, Grom AH, Drev A, Čolaković AB, Frič A. REPORT ON THE DRUG SITUATION 2021 OF THE REPUBLIC OF SLOVENIA.

5. Verbič M, Čok M, Perić P. An economic analysis of the illegal marijuana market in Slovenia. Econ Res-Ekon Istraživanja. 1. januar 2019;32(1):657–72.

6. Cannabidiol (CBD) is not considered a ‘narcotic drug’ under European law | www.emcdda.europa.eu [Internet]. [citirano 24. oktober 2023]. Dostopno na: https://www.emcdda.europa.eu/news/2020/cannabidiol-cbd-is-not-considered-a-narcotic-drug-under-european-law_en

7. Prohibition Partners [Internet]. [citirano 25. oktober 2023]. The European CBD Report Health and Wellness. Dostopno na: https://prohibitionpartners.com/reports/the-european-cbd-report-health-and-wellness/

8. Hemp [Internet]. [citirano 25. oktober 2023]. Dostopno na: https://agriculture.ec.europa.eu/farming/crop-productions-and-plant-based-products/hemp_en
9. Matjaž MG, Tomašič T. UPORABA KANABINOIDOV.

10. European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. Hexahydrocannabinol (HHC) and related substances: technical report. [Internet]. LU: Publications Office; 2023 [citirano 26. oktober 2023]. Dostopno na: https://data.europa.eu/doi/10.2810/852912

11. Cannabis production and markets in Europe | www.emcdda.europa.eu [Internet]. [citirano 27. oktober 2023]. Dostopno na: https://www.emcdda.europa.eu/publications/insights/cannabis-market_en

12. 17_ESPAD-Slovenija-2019_Rezultati-raziskave.pdf [Internet]. [citirano 27. oktober 2023]. Dostopno na: https://www.infodroga.si/wp-content/uploads/2022/07/17_ESPAD-Slovenija-2019_Rezultati-raziskave.pdf

13. Grošelj B, Oražem M, Kovač V. Učinkovitost kanabinoidov pri zdravljenju raka – mit ali resnica? Onkol Strok-Znan Časopis Za Zdr. 7. julij 2018;8-11 Pages.

Abbreviations of sources for Social impact in Slovenia:

Cahunek: Cahunek, Toni; magistersko delo: Predlogi politike za ureditev statusa konoplje v slovenski zakonodaji; Mentor: izr. prof. dr. Bojan Dobovšek; Ljubljana 2011.

Drug report 2019: European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction; Slovenia country drug report 2019.

Drug report 2017: European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction; Slovenia country drug report 2017.

Godec: Godec, Andreja; magistersko delo: Potencialni učinki legalizacije konoplje v republiki sloveniji na prilivno stran proračuna; Mentor: izr. prof. dr. Drago Dubrovski; Koper 2017.
NIJZ 2022: Nacionalni inštitut za javno zdravje; Stanje na področju prepovedanih drog v Sloveniji 2022, Ljubljana 2023.

Nolimal/Kohek: Noliman, Dušan/ Kohek, Maja; Konoplja, etika in družbena odgovornost; available on: Microsoft Word – 06-dusan-nolimal,-maja-kohek-paper-(mm,-sz).doc (irdo.si) (last accessed 23.10.2023)

NYAM: New York Academy of Medicine; available on: 1938 | Mayor LaGuardia Commissions Academy Report on Marijuana Usage | New York Academy of Medicine (nyam.org) (last accessed 23.10.2023)

This article first appeared at TheTalmanGroup.com and is syndicated with special permission.

  • Johnny Green is the Media and Content Director for the International Cannabis Business Conference and has blogged about cannabis since January 2010.


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